Equality is the most controversial concept of social and political philosophy. From John Rawls to 103th amendment act of India, this concept remains in tremendous controversy.
One concern of equality is sameness, everyone is provided same opportunity. Another is facility in terms of need to establish real equality. Our discussion will based on second one, which is many ways more benevolent than the first one. And for this category the greatest battle of Economic Equality and Social Equality has rised. Which has tremendous impact on social as well as political arena.
When we call of need, call of opportunity, a thing come to our mind is ‘Economy/Wealth’. But with strong economy, wealth many people may satisfy their need, but for opportunity Social Equality is needed. Example, a backward caste man started a shop to sell things, but no one bought from him, he failed to grow his business. No one want to touch him, buy from him. So here opportunity is must needed thing to cope with the society. Then suppose government created a law that in that area only backward caste people will sell, no other person can sell. In this place the advanced section people must buy from him, for them it’s a only path. In this way social equality will prevail. For this facility he can develop to his greatest efficiency. So ‘Social Equality’ is needed here.
Other part is Economic Equality. How much social equality is needed, in that quantity economic equality is needed. Problem is common for all, poverty never sees caste system, advantage or disadvantage. So justice is must needed concern to uplift them. Our system being a welfare state, social model, equality should prevail to all. It’s should not serve the interests of socially backward classes or castes only. Example, there is a backward caste student with strong economy and another is advanced class student with poor economy. One day both needed books for preparation of an exam. Being rich, the 1st student bought 10 books from one publications. But due to poverty the 2nd category student could’t buy books. In that time scholarship came to the 1st student who is backward caste. He again bought 10 books of another publications. Then he had 20 books. And the second category student, who had no money, no scholarship, he couldn’t buy a single book. So where is equality? Where is justice here? Here rich is getting richer and poor is getting poorer.
By looking above broad examples, one thing is sure that both need wealth or opportunity. But 1st one is needed social opportunity, another needs economic opportunity. But it’s a matter to say that no system is trying to identify these and continuously giving opportunity to one section only. Though our constitution provides these in many manners, but it’s not structured. I believe backward caste people need opportunities. If he is a rich people he needs social opportunity, so he should be provided that. But why government is providing both social and economic opportunities to them, where second opportunity is not needed here. And for the poorest section, economic opportunity is must needed. They may advanced in caste or race, but need is for all, hunger is faced by all and hence equal opportunity should be prevailed for all.